Chloride in borehole water

Chloride as Cl- mg/L


≤ 300

Above 290 require a Reverse Osmosis System.

Chronic Effects of Chloride in borehole water on Humans:

  • Causes adverse reproductive effects in humans (fetotoxicity, abortion,) by intraplacental route.
  • High intake of sodium chloride, whether from occupational exposure or in the diet, may increase risk of TOXEMIA OF PREGNANCY in susceptible women.
  • Hypertonic sodium chloride solutions have been used to induce abortion in late pregnancy by direct infusion into the uterus, but this route of administration is not relevant to occupational exposures.
  • May cause adverse reproductive effects and birth defects in animals, particularly rats and mice (fetotoxicity, abortion, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and maternal effects (effects on ovaries, fallopian tubes) by oral, intraperitoneal, intraplacental, intrauterine, parenteral, and subcutaneous routes.
  • While sodium chloride has been used as a negative control n some reproductive studies, it has also been used as an example that almost any chemical can cause birth defects in experimental animals if studied under the right conditions.
  • In experimental animals, sodium chloride has caused delayed effects on new-borns, has been fetotoxic, and has caused birth defects and abortions in rats and mice.
  • May affect genetic material special remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:
  • Nausea and disturbance of the electrolyte balance can occur, especially in infants, where fatalities due to dehydration may occur.

Acute Potential Health Effects of Chloride in borehole water:

  • Skin: May cause skin irritation.
  • Eyes: Causes eye irritation.
  • Ingestion: Ingestion of large quantities can irritate the stomach (as in overuse of salt tablets) with nausea and vomiting.
  • May affect behavior (muscle spasticity/contraction, somnolence), sense organs, metabolism, and cardiovascular system. Continued exposure may produce dehydrate.


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